Water is at the center of economic and social development; it is vital to maintain health, grow food, manage the environment, and create jobs. Despite water’s importance, millions of people worldwide are still without access to improved water sources, and even more are without access to consistently safe drinking water.
Drinking water can be produced from any natural sources like groundwater, lakes and rivers (surface water) or seawater. Drinking water must be free of suspended solids, microoganisms and toxic chemical. Mineral concentration recommendation vary from country to country but most of the minerals have a maximum concentration recommended to ensure safe, equilibrated and pleasant water to drink.
Depending on the water supply source different techniques of water treatment is required in order to meet the guidelines of drinking water quality set by World Health Organization (WHO). For surface water there are two commonly used techniques for treatment; conventional treatment which includes clarification, sand filtration, activated carbon adsorption and disinfection or ultrafiltration.
In a drinking water treatment system based on ultrafiltration technology the Bernoulli filter plays a vital role as part of the pre-treatment system. Pre-treatment is essential in order to increase the efficiency and life expectancy of the membrane elements by minimizing fouling scaling and degradation of the membrane.
Case story: Nakhchivan drinking water
The Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic is part of Azerbaijan yet isolated from the main part of the country, being surrounded by Armenia and Iran. Its capital - the city of Nakhchivan, is home to about 90,000 people.
When Azerbaijan gained its independence in 1991, Nakhchivan, like many cities in the post-Soviet region, inherited a long-neglected, obsolete water distribution and wastewater collection system of rusty, leaky pipes. Untreated wastewater was pumped into the Aras River. Many new houses relied on cesspools. Drinking water was contaminated.
In order to ensure that Nakhchivan city has a safe and sustainable water supply and sanitation system a $228 million project was launched.
Water Treatment System for Nakhchivan City is supplied by AquamatchTurkiye on turnkey bases in 2012. Water source is a dam and raw water TDS is 800 mg/lt. The system consists of pre-filtration, nanofiltration (NF) and ozonation stages. Total product water capacity is 1700 m3/h with the TDS less than 300 mg/lt.
Dam water is taken from infiltration galeria and fed to raw water tank. Raw water is pumped to Bernoulli Filters in order to protect nanofiltration system membranes down to 100 micron. Filtered water is pumped to the NF systems, consisting of 4 parallel trains with the total capacity of 4 x 160 m3/h for Babek Rayons and 3 parallel trains with the total capacity of 3 x 313 m3/h for Serur Rayons.
The NF system is one of the reliable techniques in order to supply drinking water from relatively high TDS water. Bacteria and some portion of total dissolved solids are removed by NF membranes.
Currently there are 5 different ongoing projects in different rayons of Nakhchivan as same concept.
Facts and figures
Customer: Nakhcivan AR StateAmelioration and Water Management Committee
Location: Nakhcivan, Azerbaijan
Application: Prefilter NFsystem
Filter model: 3 x BSG 150 and 4 x BSG 150
Operating flow: 3 x 313 m3/hand4 x 160 m3/h
Design pressure: 10 bar
Operating pressure: 2 bar